Vitamin B12


Cyanocobalamine, Cobalamine

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) helps preserve the functions of the nervous system (improves concentration, memory and balance), prevents anemia by creating and regenerating red blood cells, participates in detoxification processes in the liver, but also in its regeneration, helps normal growth, is important for the body’s energy metabolism, alleviates premenstrual and menstrual complaints, contributes to the reduction of fatigue and exhaustion, as well as the regulation of homocysteine levels and the health of the heart and blood vessels.

Vitamin B12 is soluble in water. B12 is a vitamin that plays a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and also stimulates liver regeneration, plays a role in the prevention of sterility, and with vitamin C has an anti-cancer function. It is an integral part of therapy for many psychiatric diseases, but also for severe anemia, because it stimulates the formation of erythrocytes. B12 is poorly absorbed through the stomach, and binds to the proteins of saliva and gastric juice – that’s why this vitamin should be taken in the form of lozenges or sublingual tablets (those placed under the tongue). Absorption of vitamin B12 is helped by calcium, B complex vitamins and vitamins A, C, E, and reduced by tobacco, coffee, alcohol, laxatives and problems in the functioning of the thyroid gland.

Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins. It is usually involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting the synthesis of DNA, but also the synthesis of fatty acids, as well as energy production.


Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can sometimes be observed only five years after its disappearance from body reserves. These can be: secondary occurrence of fatty degeneration of the heart, kidneys and liver, weakening of immunity and anemia. Lack of this vitamin is very common in exclusive vegetarians – because its natural sources are liver, meat, eggs, milk – and in people over fifty years of age. Vitamin B12 is an integral part of infertility therapy for both sexes, and in men, due to a lack of this vitamin, there may be disturbances in the production of semen and sperm, even a lack of spermatozoa. Breast-fed infants receive sufficient amounts of vitamin B12, but formula-fed children need the addition of this vitamin. Vitamin B12 is suitable as a therapy against anemia.

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that disrupts the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the body to attack the cells that produce insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body can no longer use insulin effectively. Certain types of diabetes medications can cause some people to develop a vitamin B12 deficiency. As such, they may benefit from taking vitamin B12 supplements. Trusted sources note that vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in people with type 2 diabetes taking metformin. The risk of low vitamin B12 levels also increases with higher doses of metformin and longer duration of treatment.

Several studies and case reports have documented an increased incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Metformin use has been unequivocally proven as the primary factor associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with T2DM. Studies evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin have reported rates of vitamin B12 deficiency ranging from 5.8% to 33% [10, 19, 20]. This wide variation in reported percentages could possibly be explained by different study definitions of vitamin B12 deficiency.


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